Modern Human

Associated Smithsonian Expert: Kari Bruwelheide, M.A.

Kari Bruwelheide examines the inside of an iron coffin with fellow Smithsonian researchers.

Photo by Smithsonian Institution

Kari Bruwelheide is a physical anthropologist at the Smithsonian National Museum of Natural History where she studies human bones, including skeletons from the distant past and more recent remains involved in criminal cases. She stumbled upon her career path by accident when she volunteered on a project during her undergraduate studies. Much of her current research in bioarchaeology, skeletal biology, and forensic anthropology is focused on the early colonial period in the Americas. Favorite parts of her job are that each day presents a new mystery and a new person to meet and learn about on a personal level, and the ability to give closure to families of victims of criminal cases. Although she's learned about so many people, the one that’s had a large impact on her was a young boy who died at historic Jamestown, Va. His incredible story makes the past real and relevant to people, especially younger people who are rarely represented in historical writings or documents. Kari received her bachelor's degree in English and Anthropology from Luther College in Iowa and a master's degree in Physical Anthropology from the University of Nebraska, Lincoln.

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This image was obtained from the Smithsonian Institution. The image or its contents may be protected by international copyright laws.

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Two fossil teeth (incisors) and two stone tools from Yuanmou, China
Photo by Smithsonian Institution

Homo sapiens

Both Prehistoric and modern humans are scientifically known as Homo sapiens. They are members of the primate family. They share many traits with their most closely related relatives, the living great apes, but are not directly descended from them. First appearing in Africa roughly 200,000 years ago, they spread to Europe, Asia, and Australia by about 40,000 years ago. Some of the earliest fossils of our species were found in 1868 at the site of Cro-Magnon in France. Homo sapiens have flat faces, reduced brow ridges (the area above the eyes), and very large brain cases. Their large brains allow them to interact with their surroundings and each other in ways that other animals and species of Homo could not. Unlike their ancestors, Homo sapiens have complex social networks and languages, art, specialized tools, and have learned to change and control their environment to benefit themselves. They continue to adapt and survive throughout the world today.

This bear leg shows how similar humans bones are to animal bones.
Photo by Smithsonian Institution

Human Bones versus Animal Bones

Humans are part of a group of organisms that have endoskeletons, or bones that are under their skin. Many non-human animals have bones that look like and serve functions similar to those of human bones. Sometimes people find bones and think they are human. In order to determine whether bones are human or non-human, they are examined by anthropologists. Forensic and physical anthropologists look at the bones' size, proportion, shape, and internal structure. In the case of human bones, for example, the pelvis is designed for walking on two legs, so the spine has a distinctive S-curve to support an upright body. Likewise, human hands and feet have also evolved to have distinctive forms.

The male pelvis on the left is structured differently than the female pelvis on the right due to childbirth.
Photo by Smithsonian Institution

Using the Pelvis to Determine Sex

The pelvis is formed from a group of bones that are located at the base of the spine. The human pelvis has evolved to support the upper body and allow for humans to walk on two legs. It is mainly comprised of the left and right ilium, ischium, and pubic bones (the hip bones), the sacrum (the base of the spine), and the coccyx (the tailbone). By looking at the pelvis, forensic and physical anthropologists can determine if a person was physically a male or a female. The female pelvis is shaped slightly different than a male pelvis. The birth canal of a female requires a wider, circular shaped opening, while men have a narrower pelvic inlet that is heart-shaped. While they have differences related to childbirth, the male and female pelvis have the same overall shape and serve the same functions in each sex.


Adaptation of Human Ancestors

Evolution occurs when a species adapts and changes over time through descent with modification. This is based on selective pressures within their environment. Human evolution is no different. Early humans walked on four legs, ate mostly plants, and had small brains. Over millions of years, they adapted to take advantage of the world around them. For example, they began to walk upright on two legs, became predators and skilled hunters, and developed large brains that allowed for sophisticated communication, a higher degree of forethought and planning, complex social interactions, and other traits that define them as a species. Often these adaptations were in response to a change in their environment, such as temperature change in the beginning or ending of an ice age or when a new species of predator moved into the area. Like all species, modern humans continue to change today and further adapt to their environment.