Igneous Rock Basalt

Associated Smithsonian Expert: Michael A. Wise, Ph.D.

Michael Wise investigates granite and pegmatite dikes that intruded into metasedimentary rocks near Mount Antero, Colorado.

Courtesy of Jennifer C. Kelly

Dr. Michael Wise is a geologist and an expert on pegmatites, which are coarse-grained igneous rocks rich in the minerals quartz and feldspar. A native of Smithfield in southeastern Virginia, Dr. Wise first got interested in mineralogy as an undergraduate at the University of Virginia, when rock-hunting trips to central Virginia and North Carolina strengthened his interest in this type of rock. He obtained his doctorate from the University of Manitoba in Canada in 1987 and joined the Smithsonian National Museum of Natural History Department of Mineral Sciences one year later. He has traveled widely in the Appalachian mountains of the eastern United States to study pegmatites, which are good sources of not only semiprecious gemstones such as aquamarine, rose quartz, and topaz, but also rare elements, such as beryllium, lithium, and cesium, with important economic applications. His research has also taken him to Nevada, Colorado, California, and the Northwest Territories of Canada. In the laboratory, he uses a scanning electron microscope, cathodoluminescence microscope, X-ray diffractometer, and other tools to investigate the composition, crystal structure, and evolution of pegmatites.

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This image was obtained from the Smithsonian Institution. The image or its contents may be protected by international copyright laws.
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Lava fountains erupt from Krafla volcano in Iceland
Photographed by Michael Ryan, U.S. Geological Survey, Public Domain

How Igneous Rocks Are Formed

Earth's crust, or outermost rocky layer, sits on top of a deeper layer called the mantle, which stores heat from two sources: the formation of the Earth 4.65 billion years ago and the radioactive decay of uranium, thorium, and potassium. When cracks between huge crustal plates open up, the gap causes the underlying mantle to rise up. The upwelling partially melts that region of the mantle; scientists call that decompression melting. The molten rock, or magma, is less dense than solid rock, so it moves upward, the way a cork bobs to the surface of water. As the magma reaches the upper layers of the crust or even Earth's surface, it cools and hardens into a solid known as igneous rock. Scientists categorize igneous rocks according to their chemical composition, the method of their formation, and their degree of crystallization.

This dam in Washington, USA, is constructed primarily from basalt from a quarry that mines the Ancestral Cascades.
Photographed by Donald E. Hurlbert, Smithsonian Institution

About Extrusive Igneous Rocks

When molten rock (magma) reaches Earth's surface, it solidifies or hardens. Scientists call the resulting solid rocks "extrusive" igneous rocks. Extrusion is the process of pushing material out to the surface of the Earth's crust. At some volcanoes, the extrusive rock flows as lava across the ground before it hardens; the ripples in the lava may freeze in place. Hot, rapidly expanding gases within other volcanoes' vents can force the magma out explosively, forming pumice: low-density rock full of vesicles, or frozen bubbles. Extrusive igneous rocks are easy to find near many volcanoes, such as Mount St. Helens in Washington state. Hawai`i Volcanoes National Park, home of two active volcanoes, contains lava flows that cooled only a few decades, or minutes, ago.