Spiny River Snail

Associated Smithsonian Expert: Robert Hershler, Ph.D.

Dr. Robert Hershler collects tiny amphibious snails at Grapevine Springs, northern Death Valley.

Photo Credit: Hsiu-Ping Liu

Dr. Robert Hershler is a research zoologist and curator of mollusks in the Department of Invertebrate Zoology at the Smithsonian National Museum of Natural History. His current research focuses on systematics, morphology, and biogeography of tiny freshwater gastropods of the superfamily Rissooidea, particularly the western North American fauna. He first became interested in mollusks as an undergrad at SUNY at Stony Brook, where he took classes in invertebrate zoology and assisted in the laboratory of marine biologist Jeffrey Levinton. He majored in biology at Stony Brook and then went on to obtain master's and doctorate degrees in ecology and evolution at Johns Hopkins University.

Meet our associated expert

This image was obtained from the Smithsonian Institution. The image or its contents may be protected by international copyright laws.
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Scallops (Patinopecten caurinus) for sale at a market in Japan
Courtesy of Dr. Roger Mann, VIMS, via NOAA's Fisheries Collection, public domain

About Mollusks (Phylum Mollusca): Human Use

Mollusks have been exploited by people around the world for thousands of years. Both shelled (snails, clams, scallops, conchs) and unshelled mollusks (squid and octopus) have been popular food items since prehistoric times. Several early societies used shells such as cowries for money. Today, mollusk shells are often collected and sold. Even mollusk waste products have value. A pearl is just shell layers that the mollusk uses to cover debris that gets under its shell. All shelled mollusks make them, but it is the pearl oysters that sometimes make the symmetrical, shiny ones, essentially decorative pieces of dirt. Over the years, mollusks have been used for many other purposes: dyes, decorative inlays, medicines, blades, fishing lures, tweezers, and horns. Overharvesting has endangered many mollusks species, and cultivation of mollusks had emerged as one solution.

California mussel
Courtesy of Josh Pederson, National Marine Sanctuaries Media Library, public domain

About Snails and Slugs (Class Gastropoda ): Body Plan

The gastropods are the most diverse group of mollusks, and include snails, slugs, limpets, conchs, sea slugs, and others. They typically have a coiled body form with a twisted gut and nervous system. The coiling results in the unusual arrangement of their anus being above their head. Most have a corresponding coiled shell. Coils are added as the gastropod grows, and they tend to get larger, making a cone shape. Some shells are adorned with spines, grooves, or other textures that add strength. Many have a hard flap (operculum) on the foot that can be closed over the shell opening like a trap door. The shape of a gastropod shell often can be used to identify species. A gastropod's shell not only protects it from predation, but also keeps land species (terrestrial) from drying out. Some terrestrial gastropods that live in humid places, such as slugs, have a thin shell or no shell at all.